Applying the Host-Microbe Damage Response Framework to Candida Pathogenesis: Current and Prospective Strategies to Reduce Damage.
J Fungi (Basel). 2020 Mar 11;6(1):
Authors: Fidel PL, Yano J, Esher SK, Noverr MC
Disease is a complex outcome that can occur as a result of pathogen-mediated damage, host-mediated damage or both. This has led to the revolutionary concept of the damage response framework (DRF) that defines microbial virulence as a function of host immunity. The DRF outlines six scenarios (classes) of host damage or beneficial outcomes, depending on the microbe and the strength of the immune response. Candida albicans is uniquely adapted to its human host and can exist as either a commensal, colonizing various anatomical sites without causing notable damage, or as a pathogen, with the ability to cause a diverse array of diseases, ranging from mucosal to invasive systemic infections that result in varying levels of microbe-mediated and/or host-mediated damage. We recently categorized six different forms of candidiasis (oropharyngeal, hematogenous, intra-abdominal, gastrointestinal, denture stomatitis, and vulvovaginitis) into independent DRF classes, supporting a contemporary view of unique mechanisms of pathogenesis for these Candida infections. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the pathogenesis of these various forms of candidiasis in the context of the DRF with the further intent to provide insights into strategies to achieve a level of host response or outcome otherwise, that limits host damage.
PMID: 32168864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]