J Mycol Med. 2020 Dec;30(4):101037. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2020.101037. Epub 2020 Aug 20.
Fungal peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is very difficult to treat and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Among fungal pathogens, Aspergillus peritonitis presents a higher mortality rate when compared to Candida peritonitis and its identification as well as appropriate treatment remains a challenge for the physicians. We critical reviewed all published cases in literature of Aspergillus peritonitis in PD patients. The results showed that a total of 55 cases (51% males) of Aspergillus peritonitis in PD patients were reported from 1968 to 2019. Mean patient age was 49.54±19.63years and mean PD duration prior to fungal infection was 33.31±32.45months. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in 17/55 patients, Aspergillus niger in 15, Aspergillus terreus in 9, unidentified Aspergillus spp. in 6, Aspergillus flavus in 4, whereas sporadic cases of other Aspergillus spp. were reported. As far as predisposing factors are concerned, 75% of patients suffered from prior bacterial peritonitis receiving antimicrobial therapy. Initial antifungal treatment was intravenous and/or intraperitoneal administration of amphotericin B formulations monotherapy in 47.2% of patients or in combination with fluconazole in 13.2%, or with itraconazole in 13.2%, or with caspofungin in 3.8%, or with ketoconazole or with 5-FC in 1.9%, each. Peritoneal catheter removal was performed in 85.5% of cases. Mortality rate was 38.2%, while 81.8% of the survived patients switched to hemodialysis. Conclusively, Aspergillus peritonitis diagnosis can be difficult, due to unspecific symptoms. Early treatment with appropriate antifungal agents can be determinant for patient prognosis. Despite appropriate treatment, reported mortality remains high.