Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Jul 6:AAC0069821. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00698-21. Online ahead of print.
Background Bloodstream infections (BSIs) attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE-BSIs) are dangerous and a major cause of mortality in clinical settings. This study was therefore designed to define risk factors linked to 30-day mortality in CRE-BSI patients and to examine the relative efficacy of different antimicrobial treatment regimens in affected individuals. Methods Data pertaining to 187 CRE-BSI cases from four teaching hospitals in China collected between January 2018 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Results For the 187 analyzed patients in this study, the 30-day mortality of CRE-BSI was 41.7% (78/187). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Pitt score, immunocompromised status, meropenem minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 8 mg/L, absence of source control of infection and appropriate empirical therapy were independent predictors of CRE-BSI patient 30-day mortality. After controlling for potential confounding factors, relative to ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) treatment, combination therapies including CAZ-AVI (OR 1.287, 95% CI 0.124 - 13.403, P = 0.833) were not related to any significant change in patient mortality risk, whereas 30-day mortality risk was higher for patients administered other antimicrobial regimens (OR 12.407, 95% CI 1.684 - 31.430, P = 0.011). When patients were treated with antimicrobial regimens not containing CAZ-AVI, combination therapy (OR 0.239, 95% CI 0.077 - 0.741, P = 0.013) was related to a decreased 30-day mortality risk relative to monotherapy treatment. Conclusion The mortality-related risk factors and relative antimicrobial regimen efficacy data demonstrated in this study may guide the management of CRE-BSI patients.