Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Feb 2;6(4):1118-1129. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.01.010. eCollection 2021 Apr.
INTRODUCTION: This describes variations in facility peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent (PDE) culture techniques and local microbiology laboratory practices, competencies, and quality assurance associated with peritonitis, with a specific emphasis on factors associated with culture-negative peritonitis (CNP).
METHODS: Peritonitis data were prospectively collected from 22 Thai PD centers between May 2016 and October 2017 as part of the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. The first cloudy PD bags from PD participants with suspected peritonitis were sent to local and central laboratories for comparison of pathogen identification. The associations between these characteristics and CNP were evaluated.
RESULTS: CNP was significantly more frequent in local laboratories (38%) compared with paired PDE samples sent to the central laboratory (12%, P < 0.05). Marked variations were observed in PD center practices, particularly with respect to specimen collection and processing, which often deviated from International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis Guideline recommendations, and laboratory capacities, capabilities, and certification. Lower rates of CNP were associated with PD nurse specimen collection, centrifugation of PDE, immediate transfer of samples to the laboratory, larger hospital size, larger PD unit size, availability of an on-site nephrologist, higher laboratory capacity, and laboratory ability to perform aerobic cultures, undertake standard operating procedures in antimicrobial susceptibilities, and obtain local accreditation.
CONCLUSION: There were large variations in PD center and laboratory capacities, capabilities, and practices, which in turn were associated with the likelihood of culturing and correctly identifying organisms responsible for causing PD-associated peritonitis. Deviations in practice from International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis guideline recommendations were associated with higher CNP rates.