BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 2;21(1):638. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06315-0.
BACKGROUND: Searching the risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection is important in clinical practice. In the present study, we aim to investigate bacterial characteristics of colonizing strains and their correlation with subsequent CRE infection.
METHODS: Between May 2018 and January 2019, patients hospitalized in the department of haematology and intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for CRE by rectal swabs and monitored for the outcome of infection. We identified the species and carbapenemase-encoding genes of colonizing strains and performed antimicrobial susceptibility tests and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Risk factors for subsequent CRE infections were ascertained by univariate and multivariable analysis.
RESULTS: We collected a total of 219 colonizing strains from 153 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most abundant species, and MLST analysis showed rich diversity. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was predominant in the infection group (72.4%). In the non-infection group, 35.4% of strains were non-carbapenemase-producing CRE (NCP-CRE), and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) was predominant (42.2%). The rate of high-level carbapenem resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥ 64 mg/L for meropenem and ertapenem, ≥ 32 mg/L for imipenem) was remarkably higher in the infection group than in the non-infection group (P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that K. pneumoniae, high-level carbapenem resistance, CP-CRE and KPC-CRE were infection risk factors after CRE colonization. On multivariable analysis with different carbapenemase dichotomizations, KPC-CRE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.507; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.339-15.171; P = 0.015) or imipenem MIC ≥ 32 mg/L (aOR, 9.515; 95% CI, 1.617-55.977; P = 0.013) were respectively identified as independent risk factors for subsequent infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients colonized with KPC-CRE or strains with an imipenem MIC ≥ 32 mg/L were at particularly high risk of subsequent CRE infections during their hospital stay.