Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies

Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2021 Apr 28:15347346211002715. doi: 10.1177/15347346211002715. Online ahead of print.


Since infectious foot ulcers represent one of the major causes of lower-limb amputation, it calls for an appropriate action for early detection and sufficient treatment of diabetic foot infection (DFI). The present study aimed at investigating the bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of DFIs in Iran. We have conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Scientific Information Database to identify all articles reporting the proportion of different kinds of bacteria isolated from Iranian DFI samples. Quality was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute tool. A pooled estimate of proportion with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated using the random effect method. Fifteen studies were eligible, of which 1970 bacterial isolates were obtained from 1316 patients. The most predominant isolates recovered from DFIs was Staphylococcus aureus with a pooled proportion of 24.29% (95% CI: 20.25%, 28.57%) from which 55% (95% CI: 38%, 72%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Among Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli had the highest proportion (17.19%; 95% CI: 13.96%, 20.68%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7.54% (95% CI: 4.56%, 11.14%). The highest pooled estimates of resistance against cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin were found in S. aureus 66% (95% CI: 48%, 82%) and E coli isolates 68% (95% CI: 51%, 84%), respectively. Our study revealed that AMR is at a high level in Iran and clinicians should be aware of bacterial resistance patterns to prescribe appropriate antibiotic regimens.

PMID:33909495 | DOI:10.1177/15347346211002715