Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Mar 17;10(3):306. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10030306.
Probiotics can potentially prevent and treat diseases. We examined the inhibitory activity of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs) from potentially probiotic lactobacilli and streptococci on Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans clinical isolates from women with vulvovaginitis. Using agar well diffusion assays, BLISs inhibited both Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans isolates. The BLIS from L. pentosus isolates had the highest anti-Candida activity (33/45; 73.3%), followed by BLISs from isolates of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei (31/45; 68.9%), L. rhamnosus I (30/45; 66.7%), L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis I (30/45; 66.7%), and S. uberis II (30/45; 66.7%). Upon characterization according to the retained activity under variable physical and chemical conditions, the BLISs showed stability against heat, pH, and surfactants, but were protease-sensitive, which suggests a proteinaceous nature of the active substances. Using crystal violet assays, the BLISs reduced the Candida biofilm biomass significantly as compared to a control group that lacked BLISs. In vivo testing of the antagonistic activity was performed using the Galleria mellonella (G. mellonella) larvae model. BLISs significantly improved survival in G. mellonella larvae treated with Candida isolates on the first, second, and seventh days, as compared to larvae inoculated with Candida only (p < 0.01). The results show that BLISs can be used as biotherapeutic agents in vulvovaginal candidiasis.