Basis for selecting optimum antibiotic regimens for secondary peritonitis.

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Basis for selecting optimum antibiotic regimens for secondary peritonitis.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14(1):109-24

Authors: Maseda E, Gimenez MJ, Gilsanz F, Aguilar L

Abstract
Adequate management of severely ill patients with secondary peritonitis requires supportive therapy of organ dysfunction, source control of infection and antimicrobial therapy. Since secondary peritonitis is polymicrobial, appropriate empiric therapy requires combination therapy in order to achieve the needed coverage for both common and more unusual organisms. This article reviews etiological agents, resistance mechanisms and their prevalence, how and when to cover them and guidelines for treatment in the literature. Local surveillances are the basis for the selection of compounds in antibiotic regimens, which should be further adapted to the increasing number of patients with risk factors for resistance (clinical setting, comorbidities, previous antibiotic treatments, previous colonization, severity…). Inadequate antimicrobial regimens are strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Awareness of resistance epidemiology and of clinical consequences of inadequate therapy against resistant bacteria is crucial for clinicians treating secondary peritonitis, with delicate balance between optimization of empirical therapy (improving outcomes) and antimicrobial overuse (increasing resistance emergence).

PMID: 26568097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]