Biology, systematics, and clinical manifestations of Zygomycota infections.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 11;
Authors: Muszewska A, Pawłowska J, Krzyściak P
Fungi cause opportunistic, nosocomial, and community-acquired infections. Among fungal infections (mycoses) zygomycoses are exceptionally severe, with a mortality rate exceeding 50 %. Immunocompromised hosts, transplant recipients, and diabetic patients with uncontrolled keto-acidosis and high iron serum levels are at risk. Zygomycota are capable of infecting hosts immune to other filamentous fungi. The infection often follows a progressive pattern, with angioinvasion and metastases. Moreover, current antifungal therapy frequently has an unfavorable outcome. Zygomycota are resistant to some of the routinely used antifungals, among them azoles (except posaconazole) and echinocandins. The typical treatment consists of surgical debridement of the infected tissues accompanied by amphotericin B administration. The latter has strong nephrotoxic side effects, which make it unsuitable for prophylaxis. Delayed administration of amphotericin and excision of mycelium-containing tissues worsens survival prognoses. More than 30 species of Zygomycota are involved in human infections, among them Mucorales is the most abundant. Prognosis and treatment suggestions differ for each species, which makes fast and reliable diagnosis essential. Serum sample PCR-based identification often gives false-negative results; culture-based identification is time-consuming and not always feasible. With the dawn of Zygomycota sequencing projects significant advancement is expected, as in the case of treatment of Ascomycota infections.
PMID: 24615580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]