Biosynthesis of pneumocandin lipopeptides and perspectives for its production and related echinocandins.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Sep 25;:
Authors: Li Y, Lan N, Xu L, Yue Q
Fungal diseases are a global public health problem. Invasive fungal infections pose a serious threat to patients with compromised immune systems, such as those undergoing organ or bone marrow transplants, cancer, or HIV/AIDS. Pneumocandins are antifungal lipohexapeptides of the echinocandin family that noncompetitively inhibit of 1,3-β-glucan synthase of fungal cell wall and provide the precursor for the semisynthesis of caspofungin, which is widely used as first-line therapy for invasive fungal infections. Recently, the biosynthetic steps leading to formation of pneumocandin B0 and echinocandin B have been elucidated, and thus, provide a framework and attractive model for further design new antifungal therapeutics around natural variations in echinocandin structural diversities via genetic and chemical tools. In this article, we analyze the biosynthetic pathway of pneumocandins and other echinocandins, provide an update on the array of pneumocandin analogues generated by genetic manipulation, and summarize advances in the enhancement of pneumocandin B0 production by random mutagenesis and fermentation optimization. We also give offer advice on the development of improved pneumocandin drug candidates and more efficient production of pneumocandin B0.
PMID: 30255232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]