Life (Basel). 2021 Jun 18;11(6):575. doi: 10.3390/life11060575.
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) constitute a growing public health concern, are among the most severe nosocomial pathologies, and are considered a worldwide cause of unfaithful outcomes, increasing treatment costs and diagnostic uncertainties. BSIs are one of the most frequent lethal conditions that are managed in intensive care units (ICUs). In the case of septic shock, immune deficiency, and delayed treatment, even with adequate antimicrobial therapy and/or source control, the outcomes are often unfavorable.
METHODS: this review article summarizes the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of BSIs with a particular focus on ICU acquired BSIs (ICU-BSIs), which are usually caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. For this reason, their antimicrobial resistance patterns and therapeutic options have also been compiled.
RESULTS: ICU-acquired BSIs prevail in 5-7% of ICU patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae are the pathogens most often responsible for MDR infections. MDR Enterobacteriaceae have seen their prevalence increase from 6.2% (1997-2000) to 15.8% (2013-2016) in recent years.
CONCLUSIONS: Considering that prevention and treatment of sepsis is nowadays considered a global health priority by the World Health Organization, it is our obligation to invest more resources into solving or reducing the spread of these unfaithful infections. It is relevant to identify patients with risk factors that make them more susceptible to BSIs, to guarantee earlier molecular or microbiological diagnoses, and more rapidly appropriate treatment by using de-escalation strategies where possible.