BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 2;21(1):636. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06243-z.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors associated with mortality and multi-drug resistance bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) among adult cancer patients in Shiraz, Iran. We also report a four-year trend of antimicrobial resistance patterns of BSIs.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at a referral oncology hospital from July 2015 to August 2019, which included all adults with confirmed BSI.
RESULTS: 2393 blood cultures tested during the four-year study period; 414 positive cultures were included. The mean age of our patients was 47.57 ± 17.46 years old. Central Line-Associated BSI (CLABSI) was more common in solid tumors than patients with hematological malignancies. Gram-negative (GN) bacteria were more detected (63.3%, 262) than gram-positive bacteria (36.7%, 152). Escherichia coli was the most common gram-negative organism (123/262, 47%), followed by Pseudomonas spp. (82/262, 31%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (38/262, 14.5%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was the most frequently isolated pathogen among gram-positive bacteria (83/152, 54.6%). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were the most common Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers (100, 96.2, 66.7%, and 60.7, respectively). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were the most common carbapenem-resistant (CR) isolates (77.8, 70.7, 33.3, 24.4, and 13.2%, respectively). Out of 257 Enterobacterales and non-fermenter gram-negative BSIs, 39.3% (101/257) were carbapenem-resistant. Although the incidence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) gram-negative BSI increased annually during 2015-2018, the mortality rate of gram-negative BSI remains unchanged at about 20% (p-value = 0.55); however, the mortality rate was significantly greater (35.4%) in those with resistant gram-positive BSI (p-value = 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 21.5%. Early (7-day mortality) and late mortality rate (30-day mortality) were 10 and 3.4%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of MDR gram-negative BSI is a significant healthcare problem in oncology centers. The high proportion of the most frequently isolated pathogens were CR and ESBL-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas spp. We have few effective choices against MDRGN BSI, especially in high-risk cancer patients, which necessitate newer treatment options.