Trop Anim Health Prod. 2021 Mar 31;53(2):236. doi: 10.1007/s11250-021-02680-9.
Mastitis is the most important disease in the dairy industry. Antibiotics are considered to be the first choice in the treatment of the disease. However, the problem of antibiotic residue and antimicrobial resistance, in addition to the impact of antibiotic abuse on public health, leads to many restrictions on uncontrolled antibiotic therapy in the dairy sector worldwide. Researchers have investigated novel therapeutic approaches to replace the use of antibiotics in mastitis control. These efforts, supported by the revolutionary development of nanotechnology, stem cell assays, molecular biological tools, and genomics, enabled the development of new approaches for mastitis-treatment and control. The present review discusses recent concepts to control mastitis such as breeding of mastitis-resistant dairy cows, the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools, the application of communication technology as an educational and epidemiological tool, application of modern mastitis vaccines, cow drying protocols, teat disinfection, housing, and nutrition. These include the application of nanotechnology, stem cell technology, photodynamic and laser therapy or the use of traditional herbal medical plants, nutraceuticals, antibacterial peptides, bacteriocins, antibodies therapy, bacteriophages, phage lysins, and probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics.