[Candida: Epidemiology and risk factors for non-albicans species.]
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2012 Nov 19;
Authors: Cornistein W, Mora A, Orellana N, Capparelli FJ, Del Castillo M
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial fungal infections have increased significantly in the last decade. Candida detection in clinical specimens can mean either colonization or an infection which can be local (muguet) or invasive. Knowledge of the species helps in choosing the best treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency and distribution of Candida species detected in clinical samples, to analyze the clinical characteristics of the involved population and to determine the risk factors for Candida non-albicans species. METHODS: Retrospective, observational. Period: 2006-2010. Inclusion criteria: all isolates of Candida in clinical specimens from patients hospitalized -at least 48hours in a neurological center. We analyzed epidemiological characteristics, co morbidities, risk factors, factors associated with Candida non-albicans detection, antifungal treatment, development of adverse events and mortality. RESULTS: Candida spp. was isolated from 321 clinical specimens: 139 (43.3%) were C. albicans and 182 (56.7%) Candida non-albicans. The distribution of the sample was: urine 122 (Candida non-albicans 67.2%), airway 81, oropharynx 45 (C. albicans) and candidemia 40 (Candida non-albicans 75%). The most frequent co-morbidity was solid tumor (35.5%). The main risk factors were antibiotic therapy (85.5%), steroid therapy (61.7%) and in ICU at diagnosis (61.6%). The analysis of risk factors and the isolation of Candida non-albicans shows that chemotherapy, previous surgery, treatment with aminopenicillins, carbapenems and glycopeptides were statistically significant (P<.05). There is a trend in neutropenic patients (P=.055) and in ICU at diagnosis (P=.076). Overall survival was 71%. CONCLUSIONS: Candida species distribution varies with the type of sample analyzed. Non-albicans species make up the majority of the isolates. The identification of the species involved per sample helps to optimize treatment. The high frequency of isolation of Candida in patients on steroids and antibiotics and admitted to ICU, is worth pointing out. Patients with previous surgery, treated with the aforementioned antibiotics or chemotherapy, could receive non-azole antifungals in the initial empirical treatment strategy.
PMID: 23182240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]