Carbon nanotube incorporation in PMMA to prevent microbial adhesion.
Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 20;9(1):4921
Authors: Kim KI, Kim DA, Patel KD, Shin US, Kim HW, Lee JH, Lee HH
Although PMMA-based biomaterials are widely used in clinics, a major hurdle, namely, their poor antimicrobial (i.e., adhesion) properties, remains and can accelerate infections. In this study, carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to achieve drug-free antimicrobial adhesion properties. After characterizing the mechanical/surface properties, the anti-adhesive effects against 3 different oral microbial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans) were determined for roughened and highly polished surfaces using metabolic activity assays and staining for recognizing adherent cells. Carboxylated multiwalled CNTs were fabricated and incorporated into PMMA. Total fracture work was enhanced for composites containing 1 and 2% CNTs, while other mechanical properties were gradually compromised with the increase in the amount of CNTs incorporated. However, the surface roughness and water contact angle increased with increasing CNT incorporation. Significant anti-adhesive effects (35~95%) against 3 different oral microbial species without cytotoxicity to oral keratinocytes were observed for the 1% CNT group compared to the PMMA control group, which was confirmed by microorganism staining. The anti-adhesive mechanism was revealed as a disconnection of sequential microbe chains. The drug-free antimicrobial adhesion properties observed in the CNT-PMMA composite suggest the potential utility of CNT composites as future antimicrobial biomaterials for preventing microbial-induced complications in clinical settings (i.e., Candidiasis).
PMID: 30894673 [PubMed - in process]