Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2021 Oct 7;10(1):141. doi: 10.1186/s13756-021-01003-9.
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to cardiac surgery are related to contaminated heater-cooler devices, with high mortality. Nevertheless, few studies have been reported in Asia.
CASE PRESENTATION: We described the case of a 55-year-old man with Mycobacterium chimaera infection following cardiac surgery in the mainland of China. He was diagnosed with endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium chimaera subsequent to open heart surgery. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and 16S rRNA gene PCR analysis were used to identify potential pathogens. The patient underwent redo valve replacement surgery and received combination therapy with azithromycin, ethambutol, linezolid, and amikacin. No signs of relapse were observed during the 11-month follow-up visit.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first documented case of Mycobacterium chimaera infection following cardiac surgery in the mainland of China and the first documented transnational imported case worldwide. Moreover, mNGS is a novel diagnostic technology that can guide antimicrobial therapy prior to obtaining fluid/tissue culture results for Mycobacterium chimaera, providing a new approach for the detection of potential Mycobacterium chimaera infection.