Urine culture guided antibiotic interventions: A pharmacist driven antimicrobial stewardship effort in the emergency department.

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Urine culture guided antibiotic interventions: A pharmacist driven antimicrobial stewardship effort in the emergency department.

Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Dec 16;:

Authors: Zhang X, Rowan N, Pflugeisen BM, Alajbegovic S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are overprescribed for abnormal urine tests including asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), contributing to rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Pharmacists reviewed urine cultures daily from emergency department (ED) encounters to assess antibiotic appropriateness. We studied antibiotic prescribing practices and assessed compliance to national guidelines, correlations with urine analysis (UA) components, and opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in the ED.
METHODS: This quality improvement project (QIP) was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital ED, with data collected from finalized urine cultures resulting October 30, 2014 through January 5, 2015. Analyses were conducted using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests and stepwise multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS: Urine cultures from 457 encounters were reviewed, of which 136 met the inclusion criteria as non-pregnant and asymptomatic for urinary tract infection (UTI). 43% of 136 patients were treated with antibiotics, for a total of 426 antibiotic days. Pharmacist interventions for these patients resulted in 122/426 (29%) of potential antibiotic days saved. Factors found to significantly increase the odds of antibiotic prescribing in asymptomatic patients included presence of leukocyte esterase (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-17.2; p=0.03) or nitrites (OR=10.8, 95% CI: 1.7-68.1; p=0.01) in the urine and age≥75 (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-9.6, p=0.02).
DISCUSSION: Pharmacist intervention in discontinuing or modifying antibiotics for asymptomatic patients with urine cultures reduced unnecessary antibiotic exposure and was a first step in antimicrobial stewardship efforts in the ED. Future work includes limiting urine tests and subsequent antibiotic therapy for non-pregnant asymptomatic patients.

PMID: 28010959 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

The effects of an electronic order set on vancomycin dosing in the ED.

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The effects of an electronic order set on vancomycin dosing in the ED.

Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Jan;33(1):92-4

Authors: Hall AB, Montero J, Cobian J, Regan T

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of a computer physician order entry (CPOE) electronic order set on appropriate vancomycin dosing in the emergency department (ED).
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study examining ED dosing of vancomycin before and after the implementation of an electronic weight-based vancomycin order set. Preimplementation and postimplementation patient records were analyzed between the dates of June 1st and August 31st 2010 for the pre-CPOE group and January 1st to March 31st 2013 for the post-CPOE group.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: χ(2) analysis, Fisher exact test, and t tests were performed with a 2-sided P value <.05 denoting statistical significance, where appropriate.
RESULTS: A total of 597 patients were included in the study, with 220 in the pre-CPOE group and 377 in the post-CPOE group. The use of the electronic order set resulted in a 21.9% increase (P < .05) in appropriate dosing with 67.4% (254/377) of post-CPOE vancomycin doses considered appropriate vs 45.5% (100/220) in the pre-CPOE group. In critically ill patients, there was a 16.3% increase in appropriate dosing with 44.7% (38/85) in the post-CPOE group compared with 28.4% (19/67) in the pre-CPOE group.
CONCLUSION: The implementation of an electronic order set increased the percentage of ED patients receiving appropriate initial vancomycin doses. The impact of increasing compliance to vancomycin guidelines is in accordance with stewardship principles that promote optimization of antimicrobial dosing based on individual patient characteristics. More studies are needed to assess the relationship between appropriate vancomycin loading doses in the ED and therapeutic outcomes.

PMID: 25445870 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]