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Can J Hosp Pharm

Outcomes in Documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia Treated with Intermittent IV Infusion of Ceftazidime, Meropenem, or Piperacillin-Tazobactam: A Retrospective Study.

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Outcomes in Documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia Treated with Intermittent IV Infusion of Ceftazidime, Meropenem, or Piperacillin-Tazobactam: A Retrospective Study.

Can J Hosp Pharm. 2015 Sep-Oct;68(5):386-94

Authors: Kwee F, Walker SA, Elligsen M, Palmay L, Simor A, Daneman N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial gram-negative bloodstream infections, is particularly difficult to treat because of its multiple resistance mechanisms combined with a lack of novel antipseudomonal antibiotics. Despite knowledge of time-dependent killing with ß-lactam antibiotics, most hospitals in Canada currently administer ß-lactam antibiotics by intermittent rather than extended infusions.
OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical outcomes, microbiological outcomes, total hospital costs, and infection-related costs for patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia who received intermittent IV administration of antipseudomonal ß-lactam antibiotics in a tertiary care institution.
METHODS: For this retrospective descriptive study, data were collected for patients who were admitted between March 1, 2005, and March 31, 2013, who had P. aeruginosa bacteremia during their admission, and who received at least 72 h of treatment with ceftazidime, meropenem, or piperacillin-tazobactam. Clinical and microbiological outcomes were determined, and total and infection-related hospital costs were calculated.
RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 79 (77%) experienced clinical cure. In addition, bacterial eradication was achieved in 41 (87%) of the 47 patients with evaluable data for this outcome. Twenty-eight (27%) of the 103 patients died within 30 days of discontinuation of antipseudomonal ß-lactam antibiotic therapy. The median total cost of the hospital stay was $121 718, and the median infection-related cost was $29 697.
CONCLUSIONS: P. aeruginosa bacteremia is a clinically significant nosocomial infection that continues to cause considerable mortality and health care costs. To the authors’ knowledge, no previous studies have calculated total and infection-related hospital costs for treatment of P. aeruginosa bacteremia with intermittent infusion of antipseudomonal ß-lactam antibiotics, with characterization of cost according to site of acquisition of the infection. This study may provide important baseline data for assessing the impact of implementing extended-infusion ß-lactam therapy, antimicrobial stewardship, and infection control strategies targeting P. aeruginosa infection in hospitalized patients.

PMID: 26478584 [PubMed]

Stability of Ertapenem 100 mg/mL in Manufacturer’s Glass Vials or Syringes at 4°C and 23°C.

Stability of Ertapenem 100 mg/mL in Manufacturer’s Glass Vials or Syringes at 4°C and 23°C.

Can J Hosp Pharm. 2015 Mar-Apr;68(2):121-6

Authors: Walker SE, Law S, Perks W, Iazzetta J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic administration of ertapenem as a single 1-g IV dose has been shown to reduce sepsis after prostate biopsy.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability of ertapenem after reconstitution with 0.9% sodium chloride to a final concentration of 100 mg/mL and storage in the manufacturer’s original glass vials or polypropylene syringes.
METHODS: On study day 0, 100 mg/mL solutions of ertapenem were retained in the manufacturer’s glass vials or packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored at 4°C or 23°C without protection from fluorescent room light. Samples were assayed periodically over 18 days using a validated, stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method with ultra-violet detection. A beyond-use date was determined as the time for the concentration to decline to 90% of the initial (day 0) concentration, based on the fastest degradation rate, with 95% confidence.
RESULTS: Reconstituted solutions stored in the manufacturer’s glass vials or polypropylene syringes exhibited a first-order degradation rate, such that 10% of the initial concentration was lost in the first 2.5 days when stored at 4°C or within the first 6.75 h when stored at room temperature (23°C). Analysis of variance showed differences in the percentage remaining due to temperature (p < 0.001) and study day (p < 0.001) but not type of container (p = 0.98). When a 95% CI for the degradation rate was calculated and used to determine a beyond-use date, it was established that more than 90% of the initial concentration would remain for 2.35 days at 4°C and for 0.23 day (about 5 h, 30 min) at room temperature.
CONCLUSIONS: A 100 mg/mL ertapenem solution stored in the manufacturer’s glass vial or a polypropylene syringe will retain more than 90.5% of the initial concentration when stored for 48 h at 4°C and for an additional 1 h at 23°C.

PMID: 25964683 [PubMed]