Currently browsing category

Indian J Med Microbiol

Comparing the profile of respiratory fungal pathogens amongst immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, their susceptibility pattern and correlation of various opportunistic respiratory fungal infections and their progression in relation to the CD4+T-cell counts.

Related Articles
Comparing the profile of respiratory fungal pathogens amongst immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, their susceptibility pattern and correlation of various opportunistic respiratory fungal infections and their progress…

Detecting mutation pattern of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Himachal Pradesh using GenoType(®) MTBDRplus assay.

Related Articles

Detecting mutation pattern of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Himachal Pradesh using GenoType(®) MTBDRplus assay.

Indian J Med Microbiol. 2015 Oct-Dec;33(4):547-53

Authors: Thakur C, Kumar V, Gupta AK

Abstract
CONTEXT: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India and a principal cause of death in adults, especially among the economically productive age group. India accounts for one-fifth of the global burden of TB. It is estimated that about 40% of Indian population is infected with TB bacillus. The GenoType® MTBDRplus molecular method allows rapid diagnosis of the clinical samples and detection of the most common mutations in the genes associated with rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H) resistance.
AIMS: To study the drug resistance and mutational patterns in multidrug-resistant (MDR) suspects clinical strains using GenoType® MTBDRplus assay.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 770 sputum samples of the MDR-TB suspects were included in this study, which were received at Intermediate Reference Laboratory, Government TB Sanatorium, Dharampur, Solan, Himachal Pradesh from the Designated Microscopy Centres of Himachal Pradesh for the culture and susceptibility testing. All the 521 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains were subjected to GenoType® MTBDRplus (HAIN Lifescience) assay to detect molecular resistance pattern to first line anti-tubercular drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin).
RESULTS: Of 770 samples, 556 (72.20%) were from male and 214 (27.80%) were from female. Among the 521 MTBC strains, 19.76% were found to be MDR and mono-resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was detected in 8.63% and 6.14% strains respectively. About 74.81%, 76.35% and 5.40% strains harboured known mutation in rpoB, katG and inhA genes respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In rpoB gene, the most common mutation is associated with S531 L region. The GenoType® MTBDRplus assay is a rapid test for the detection of the most common mutations in MDR-TB strains. In our study, unknown rpoB gene mutations were found in 25.18% strains that may further be detected by gene sequencing.

PMID: 26470962 [PubMed – in process]

Distribution of different yeasts isolates among trauma patients and comparison of accuracy in identification of yeasts by automated method versus conventional methods for better use in low resource countries.

Related Articles

Distribution of different yeasts isolates among trauma patients and comparison of accuracy in identification of yeasts by automated method versus conventional methods for better use in low resource countries.

Indian J Med Microbiol. 2014 Oct-Dec;32(4):391-7

Authors: Rajkumari N, Mathur P, Xess I, Misra MC

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: As most trauma patients require long-term hospital stay and long-term antibiotic therapy, the risk of fungal infections in such patients is steadily increasing. Early diagnosis and rapid treatment is life saving in such critically ill trauma patients.
AIMS: To see the distribution of various species of Candida among trauma patients and compare the accuracy, rapid identification and cost effectiveness between VITEK 2, CHROMagar and conventional methods.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study performed over a period of 52 months (January 2009 to April 2013) at a level I trauma centre in New Delhi, India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All microbiological samples positive for Candida were processed for microbial identification using standard methods. Identification of Candida was done using chromogenic medium and by automated VITEK 2 Compact system and later confirmed using the conventional method. Time to identification in both was noted and accuracy compared with conventional method.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Performed using the SPSS software for Windows (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, version 15.0). P values calculated using χ2 test for categorical variables. A P<0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: Out of 445 yeasts isolates, Candida tropicalis (217, 49%) was the species that was maximally isolated. VITEK 2 was able to correctly identify 354 (79.5%) isolates but could not identify 48 (10.7%) isolates and wrongly identified or showed low discrimination in 43 (9.6%) isolates but CHROM agar correctly identified 381 (85.6%) isolates with 64 (14.4%) misidentification. Highest rate of misidentification was seen in C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (13, 27.1% each) by VITEK 2 and among C. albicans (9, 14%) by CHROMagar.
CONCLUSIONS: Though CHROMagar gives identification at a lower cost compared with VITEK 2 and are more accurate, which is useful in low resource countries, its main drawback is the long duration taken for complete identification.

PMID: 25297023 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]