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Whole genome sequencing of emerging multidrug resistant Candida auris isolates in India demonstrates low genetic variation.

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Whole genome sequencing of emerging multidrug resistant Candida auris isolates in India demonstrates low genetic variation.

New Microbes New Infect. 2016 Sep;13:77-82

Authors: Sharma C, Kumar N, Pandey R, Meis JF, Chowdhary A

Abstract
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant yeast that causes nosocomial fungaemia and deep-seated infections. Notably, the emergence of this yeast is alarming as it exhibits resistance to azoles, amphotericin B and caspofungin, which may lead to clinical failure in patients. The multigene phylogeny and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing methods report the C. auris population as clonal. Here, using whole genome sequencing analysis, we decipher for the first time that C. auris strains from four Indian hospitals were highly related, suggesting clonal transmission. Further, all C. auris isolates originated from cases of fungaemia and were resistant to fluconazole (MIC >64 mg/L).

PMID: 27617098 [PubMed]

Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population.

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Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population.

New Microbes New Infect. 2016 Jan;9:24-34

Authors: Köck R, Werner P, Friedrich AW, Fegeler C, Becker K, Prevalence of Multiresistant Microorganisms (PMM) Study Group, Prevalence of Multiresistant Microorganisms PMM Study Group

Abstract
The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4-6 months). Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99%) susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs) were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact.

PMID: 26862431 [PubMed]

Dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy in a severely overweight child with a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. A case report and review.

Dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy in a severely overweight child with a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. A case report and review.

New Microbes New Infect. 2015 Jul;6:1-4

Authors: Wagner N, Wyler-Lazarevic CA, Yerly S, Samer C, Peytavin G, Posfay-Barbe KM, Calmy A, Ambrosioni J

Abstract
The management of multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (MDR HIV) infections in children is particularly challenging due to the lack of experience with new drugs. Dolutegravir, combined with an optimized antiretroviral background therapy, is promising for the treatment of MDR HIV and has been approved recently for adults and adolescents. Data for children are extremely limited. We describe the efficacy, safety and plasmatic levels of a dolutegravir-based, complex active antiretroviral treatment regimen in a severely overweight 11-year-old child infected with an MDR HIV strain.

PMID: 26082840 [PubMed]

The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention.

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The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention.

New Microbes New Infect. 2015 Jul;6:22-9

Authors: Roca I, Akova M, Baquero F, Carlet J, Cavaleri M, Coenen S, Cohen J, Findlay D, Gyssens I, Heure OE, Kahlmeter G, Kruse H, Laxminarayan R, Liébana E, López-Cerero L, MacGowan A, Martins M, Rodríguez-Baño J, Rolain JM, Segovia C, Sigauque B, Taconelli E, Wellington E, Vila J

Abstract
In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

PMID: 26029375 [PubMed]