Currently browsing category

Vet Microbiol

Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in multi-dog households: A longitudinal study using whole genome sequencing.

Related Articles

Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in multi-dog households: A longitudinal study using whole genome sequencing.

Vet Microbiol. 2016 Jun 30;189:8-14

Authors: Windahl U, Gren J, Holst BS, Börjesson S

Abstract
Despite a worldwide increase in the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs and its potential to cause serious canine health problem, the understanding of the transmission and long-term carriage of MRSP is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the transmission of MRSP to contact dogs living in multiple dog households where one or more of the dogs had been diagnosed with a clinically apparent infection with MRSP. MRSP carriage was investigated over several months in 11 dogs living in four separate multiple dog households where an MRSP infection in a dog had been diagnosed. Whole-genome sequencing was used for genotypic characterization. Contact dogs were only MRSP-positive if the index dog was positive on the same sample occasion. Three contact dogs were consistently MRSP-negative. The data from whole genome sequencing showed similarities between isolates within each family group, indicating that MRSP was transmitted within each family. The results show that the risk of MRSP-colonization in dogs living with an MRSP-infected dog is reduced if the index dog becomes MRSP negative. All of the contact dogs will not carry MRSP continuously during the time the index dog is MRSP-positive. The information yielded from whole genome sequencing showed the methodology to be a promising additional tool in epidemiologic investigations of MRSP transmission.

PMID: 27259821 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

The clinical impact of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of the clonal complex 398 for humans.

Related Articles

The clinical impact of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of the clonal complex 398 for humans.

Vet Microbiol. 2015 Nov 22;

Authors: Becker K, Ballhausen B, Kahl BC, Köck R

Abstract
In the past decade, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in particular of the clonal complex (CC) 398 have emerged in many parts of the world especially in areas with a high density of pig farming. In those regions, farmworkers and other individuals with professional contact to livestock are very frequently colonized with LA-MRSA. These persons are the presumably source for LA-MRSA transmission to household members and other parts of the human population. Altogether, colonization and/or infection of these individuals lead to the introduction of LA-MRSA into hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Since LA-MRSA CC398 have been found to be specifically adapted to their animal hosts in terms of the equipment with virulence factors, their pathogenicity to human patients is a matter of debate with first reports about clinical cases. Meanwhile, case reports, case series and few studies have demonstrated the capability of LA-MRSA to cause all types of infections attributed to S. aureus in general including fatal courses. Human infections observed comprise e.g. bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and many manifestations of skin and soft tissue infections. However, inpatients affected by MRSA CC398 generally show different demographic (e.g. younger, shorter length of hospital stay) and clinical characteristics (e.g. less severe complications) which may explain or at least contribute to a lower disease burden of LA-MRSA compared to other MRSA clonal lineages.

PMID: 26644311 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

In vitro activity of human and animal cathelicidins against livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Related Articles

In vitro activity of human and animal cathelicidins against livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Vet Microbiol. 2015 Sep 28;

Authors: Blodkamp S, Kadlec K, Gutsmann T, Naim HY, von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Schwarz S

Abstract
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is an important zoonotic pathogen. An emerging problem in treating S. aureus infections is the increasing resistance against antibiotics. A possible way to overcome this issue is to boost the host immune system and one target are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), especially cathelicidins. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidins from different animal species against LA-MRSA and to reveal whether major antimicrobial resistance mechanisms influence the bactericidal activity of these peptides. The MICs of 153 LA-MRSA field isolates for different cathelicidins (LL-37, mCRAMP, CAP18, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28) were analysed. The cathelicidin MICs of S. aureus RN4220 and isogenic transformants, that carried 14 functionally active antimicrobial resistance genes, were determined. These resistance genes have been identified in LA-MRSA and specify the resistance mechanisms active efflux, enzymatic inactivation and modification/protection/replacement of target sites. The data showed that mode MIC values for the cathelicidins did not differ among the LA-MRSA isolates of different animal origin. However, distinct differences were detected between the MIC values for the different cathelicidins. MIC values were lowest for bovine cathelicidins (BMAP-27 and BMAP-28) and highest for the human and mouse cathelicidins (LL-37 and mCRAMP). None of the tested antimicrobial resistance genes affected the antimicrobial activity of the cathelicidins. The findings obtained in this study support the hypothesis that cathelicidins might be a promising target to support the host defense against LA-MRSA, especially since the antimicrobial activity of these peptides is not affected by common staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance genes.

PMID: 26453316 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from pigs farms.

Related Articles

Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from pigs farms.

Vet Microbiol. 2015 Aug 29;

Authors: Peeters LE, Argudín MA, Azadikhah S, Butaye P

Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a burden in human and veterinary medicine. During the last decade, an increasing number of studies reported the presence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. During 2013, a survey was performed in pig farms (n=328) randomly selected over Belgium, to monitor the current epidemiological situation of LA-MRSA among asymptomatic pigs and compare with former data to determine possible evolutions. Per farm, nose swabs were taken from 20 animals and pooled. MRSA was detected in 215 farms. Most isolates belonged to CC398 (n=211), and the remaining were ST9/t337 (n=1), ST80/t044 (n=2) and ST239/t4150 (n=1). A large diversity (n=19) of spa-types was found in the CC398 isolates. More than 90% of the isolates were non-wild type (NWT) to tetracycline and trimethoprim. NWT isolates were also found for ciprofloxacin (61.1%), clindamycin (64.4%), erythromycin (57.8%), kanamycin (43.1%) and gentamicin (45.5%). Microarray analysis showed that most CC398 isolates carried genes encoding resistance to tetracycline [tet(M)], macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin group [erm(B), erm(C), lnu(A), vga(A)], aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD,aa dD, aphA3, sat) and/or phenicols (fexA). One CC398 isolate carried the multi-resistance gene cfr. The non-CC398 isolates carried virulence genes, as the egc-like cluster. The ST80 strain carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and corresponded to the community-acquired (CA-)MRSA ST80-IV European clone. The MRSA prevalence among pigs in Belgium remains similar to previous studies but a larger diversity in spa-types has been detected in this study. The recovery of CA-MRSA from livestock indicates that one should remain vigilant to the evolution of LA-MRSA in pigs.

PMID: 26350798 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]