J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 Feb 11;76(3):775-783. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa503.
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) are associated with high mortality. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently required.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients with KPC- or OXA-48-Kp infections treated with ceftazidime/avibactam with an emphasis on KPC-Kp bloodstream infections (BSIs).
METHODS: A multicentre prospective observational study was conducted between January 2018 and March 2019. Patients with KPC- or OXA-48-Kp infections treated with ceftazidime/avibactam were included in the analysis. The subgroup of patients with KPC-Kp BSIs treated with ceftazidime/avibactam was matched by propensity score with a cohort of patients whose KPC-Kp BSIs had been treated with agents other than ceftazidime/avibactam with in vitro activity.
RESULTS: One hundred and forty-seven patients were identified; 140 were infected with KPC producers and 7 with OXA-48 producers. For targeted therapy, 68 (46.3%) patients received monotherapy with ceftazidime/avibactam and 79 (53.7%) patients received ceftazidime/avibactam in combination with at least another active agent. The 14 and 28 day mortality rates were 9% and 20%, respectively. The 28 day mortality among the 71 patients with KPC-Kp BSIs treated with ceftazidime/avibactam was significantly lower than that observed in the 71 matched patients, whose KPC-Kp BSIs had been treated with agents other than ceftazidime/avibactam (18.3% versus 40.8%; P = 0.005). In the Cox proportional hazards model, ultimately fatal disease, rapidly fatal disease and Charlson comorbidity index ≥2 were independent predictors of death, whereas treatment with ceftazidime/avibactam-containing regimens was the only independent predictor of survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Ceftazidime/avibactam appears to be an effective treatment against serious infections caused by KPC-Kp.