Front Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 14;12:707499. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.707499. eCollection 2021.
Objective: To systematically review and compare the efficacy and posttreatment resistance of ceftazidime-avibactam therapy and ceftazidime-avibactam-based combination therapy in patients with Gram-negative pathogens. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang Data databases were searched from their inception up to March 31, 2021, to obtain studies on ceftazidime-avibactam therapy versus ceftazidime-avibactam-based combination therapy in patients with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. The primary outcome was mortality rate, and the second outcomes were microbiologically negative, clinical success, and the development of resistance after ceftazidime-avibactam treatment. Results: Seventeen studies representing 1,435 patients (837 received ceftazidime-avibactam-based combination therapy and 598 received ceftazidime-avibactam therapy) were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that no statistically significant difference was found on mortality rate (Petos odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.34), microbiologically negative (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.81), and clinical success (OR =0.95, 95% CI 0.64-1.39) between ceftazidime-avibactam-based combination therapy and ceftazidime-avibactam therapy. Although there was no difference in posttreatment resistance of ceftazidime-avibactam (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.34-1.26) in all included studies, a trend favoring the combination therapy was found (according to the pooled three studies, OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.78). Conclusions: The current evidence suggests that ceftazidime-avibactam-based combination therapy may not have beneficial effects on mortality, microbiologically negative, and clinical success to patients with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. A trend of posttreatment resistance occurred more likely in ceftazidime-avibactam therapy than the combination therapy. Due to the limited number of studies that can be included, additional high-quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusions.