Ceftazidime/avibactam versus standard-of-care agents against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae harbouring blaKPC in a one-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

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Ceftazidime/avibactam versus standard-of-care agents against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae harbouring blaKPC in a one-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Jun 22;:

Authors: Barber KE, Pogue JM, Warnock HD, Bonomo RA, Kaye KS

Abstract
Background: 'Last-line' antimicrobial usage has promoted the emergence of MDR bacteria. Production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) is increasingly common and leads to resistance to most antimicrobials. However, ceftazidime/avibactam demonstrates activity against KPC-producing strains. Ceftazidime/avibactam in the empirical setting remains unknown.
Methods: Strains underwent genetic analysis evaluating blaKPC presence/production and MICs were determined. Four strains were assessed in an in vitro, one-compartment pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model for 96 h. The following bolus dosing exposures were tested: 2.5 g of ceftazidime/avibactam every 8 h, 2 g of meropenem every 8 h, 1.25 mg/kg polymyxin B every 12 h, amikacin 'once-daily dosing' (peak of 70-80 mg/L), tigecycline at 200 mg ×1 dose followed by 100 mg every 12 h, and a drug-free growth control.
Results: Thirty blaKPC-producing strains were evaluated; 97% of strains were ceftazidime/avibactam susceptible with MIC50/MIC90 values of 0.38/1.5 mg/L (range 0.032-16 mg/L). Two K. pneumoniae strains, one Klebsiella oxytoca strain and one Citrobacter freundii strain underwent further analysis in PK/PD models. Ceftazidime/avibactam displayed potent activity with a reduction of 4.23 ± 0.42 cfu/mL from the initial inoculum at 96 h. Against susceptible isolates, amikacin displayed similar activity compared with ceftazidime/avibactam at 96 h, although this was not demonstrated against all strains. Polymyxin B produced comparable activity to ceftazidime/avibactam against two strains. Neither meropenem nor tigecycline produced effective killing and were comparable to the drug-free growth control at 96 h.
Conclusions: blaKPC-producing organisms demonstrated susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam and bactericidal activity was observed in the PK/PD model. Based on these data, ceftazidime/avibactam is a valuable agent for treating KPC-producing organisms and should be considered for treatment of infections caused by these pathogens.

PMID: 29939267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]