Martin-Loeches I, et al. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2020.
INTRODUCTION: Patients admitted to hospitals are at risk of developing nosocomial infections. These types of infections typically occur in immune compromised patients. Furthermore, nosocomial infections are frequently caused by resistant organisms, including nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
AREAS COVERED: P. aeruginosa is a hazardous pathogen. It can resist numerous antibiotics, due to several resistance mechanisms. It is associated with serious illnesses, particularly hospital acquired infections including ventilator associated pneumonia. In the past, only a limited number of anti-pseudomonal drugs were available. However, several therapeutic advancements have been made, in recent years, to target P. aeruginosa, including the development of the new cephalosporin: ceftolozane-tazobactam.
EXPERT OPINION: Ceftolozane-tazobactam is a combination of a novel semi-synthetic fifth generation cephalosporin with a well-established beta-lactamase inhibitor. From a structural perspective, ceftolozane-tazobactam has attested increased stability to AmpC β-lactamases. Additionally, ceftolozane-tazobactam is less affected by changes in efflux pumps and porin permeability due to an enhanced affinity to certain penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). This enables the molecule to overcome the most common anti-drug resistant mechanisms of bacteria. According to previous clinical trials conducted, ceftolozane-tazobactam must be considered when treating patients with confirmed or suspected P. aeruginosa respiratory tract infections, either nosocomial pneumonia or ventilator-associated pneumonia.