Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1007/s10096-021-04218-1. Online ahead of print.
Management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is challenging due to its virulence and multi-drug resistance. Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a promising new antipseudomonal agent, and clinical data on CF are limited. We describe our experience in the use of C/T for P. aeruginosa-related pulmonary exacerbations (PE) in CF adults admitted within 2016 and 2019 at Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy. PE was diagnosed as deterioration of respiratory function, worsening cough, and increasing of sputum. C/T was given at the dose of 3 g every 8 h. C/T was used in ten patients. Mean length of C/T treatment was 16.3 days, and tobramycin was the most frequently combined antipseudomonal agent. All patients were successfully treated although susceptibility testing on sputum sample showed C/T resistance in two cases. No adverse effects related to C/T were reported. To our knowledge this is the largest case series on CF patients treated with C/T. Clinical responses were encouraging even where C/T resistant P. aeruginosa was isolated, probably due to multiple phenotypes colonizing CF lungs. C/T could play a promising role in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa as a part of a colistin-sparing regime.