Changing microbial epidemiology in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: increasing resistance over a 9-year period.

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Changing microbial epidemiology in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: increasing resistance over a 9-year period.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;16(6):887-96

Authors: Macesic N, Morrissey CO, Cheng AC, Spencer A, Peleg AY

Abstract
UNLABELLED: Infections remain important contributors to mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
METHOD: We studied the evolving epidemiology and trends in susceptibility of bacterial and Candida isolates at an Australian HSCT center. A total of 528 HSCTs in 508 patients were performed from April 2001 to May 2010. A total of 605 isolates were eligible for study inclusion; 318 (53%) were gram-positive, 268 (44%) were gram-negative, and 19 (3%) were Candida species.
RESULTS: The most common site for isolates was blood (380 isolates, 63%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common gram-positive organism (n = 107, 34%), but trends to increasing coagulase-negative staphylococci (P = 0.002) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (P < 0.001) were observed. Escherichia coli was the most common gram-negative isolate (n = 74, 28%). Fluoroquinolone resistance increased with widespread use of protocol fluoroquinolone prophylaxis (P = 0.001). Carbapenem resistance was found in 44% of Pseudomonas or Acinetobacter isolates. Bloodstream infection with a multidrug-resistant organism (odds ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.40-9.32, P = 0.008) was an independent predictor of mortality at 7 days after a positive blood culture.
CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in this vulnerable patient population, and not only has an impact on choice of empiric therapy for febrile neutropenia but also on mortality.

PMID: 25298044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]