Burns. 2021 Mar 17:S0305-4179(21)00075-9. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2021.03.005. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) in burn patients in Algeria.
METHODS: Between April 2016 and October 2019, 47 non-redundant isolates of PA were collected from 47 burn patients admitted to the Department of Burns at the Military Hospital of Algiers in Algeria. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by agar diffusion and the Phoenix automated method. Resistance genes were identified by PCR, and molecular typing of isolates was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences-polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Among the 47 non-redundant MDR PA strains isolated, 59.57% were phenotypically ESBLs-positive, and 100% were phenotypically MBL-positive. The ESBL-positive isolates were subsequently screened for six groups of bla genes encoding ESBL-type enzymes, namely blaCTX-M2, blaPER, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVEB, and blaGES. Out of the 28 ESBL-producing strains, 23 (82.14%) were blaCTX-M2 positive; 18 (38.29%) were blaPER positive, and 16 (34.04%) were blaTEM positive, while 5 (17.9%) were co-harboring blaCTX-M2, blaTEM, and blaPER genes. The blaSHV, blaVEB, and blaGES genes were not detected in any of the ESBL positive isolates. Since all isolates were MBL-positive, all 47 strains were screened for the blaNDM-1, blaIMP, blaVIM genes that produce MBLs; however, none of these genes were detected. Additional screening for the oprD gene demonstrated that 45 (95.74%) of the isolates were positive for this gene. Finally, ERIC PCR revealed 11 distinct PA clones among the blaCTX-M2 positive strains.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the presence of CTX-M2-producing PA in the North Africa region and the first to detect blaCTX-M2-positive and blaPER-positive PA clinical isolates in Algeria, therefore demonstrating the spread of such MDR strains to this part of the world. Identification of bacterial genotypic alterations that confer antibiotic resistance is critical in determining the most effective antimicrobial strategies to be employed. Therefore, our findings could potentially facilitate clinical decision making regarding the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of burn patients that suffer from PA infections in Algeria.