J Appl Microbiol. 2021 Apr 4. doi: 10.1111/jam.15096. Online ahead of print.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize staphylococcal isolates from diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) in Jordanian patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Selected aerobic pathogens recovered from DFU specimens and patients' nares with a focus on staphylococci were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were determined. SCCmec types and toxigenic characteristics were analyzed and spa typing was performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. The relationship between toxigenic characteristics of MRSA and the Wagner ulcer grading system was statistically analyzed. A total number of 87 DFU patients were recruited for the study. The DFU cultures were polymicrobial. Members of the genus Staphylococcus were the most common among DFU-associated isolates found in 48.3% (n= 42) of all patients enrolled. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) comprised 63.3% of staphylococci isolated from DFUs predominated by Staphylococcus epidermidis in both DFU (7.6%) and nares (39.2%). S. aureus was isolated from DFUs and nares in 14.2% and 9.8%, respectively, while 93% and 70% of these isolates were MRSA. Most of MRSA carried SCCmec type IV (76.2%) while SCCmec elements were non-typeable in most methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) (61.9%). The most frequent MRSA spa type was t386 (23.8%). Most MRSA and MR-CoNS exhibited resistance towards aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides and susceptibility towards vancomycin, mupirocin and linezolid. No association was found between the possession of pvl, tst, sea, and hlg toxins and Wagner ulcer grading system (P- value > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of Jordanian DFU culture demonstrated its polymicrobial nature with predominance of Staphylococcus spp.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This study is the first of its type to assess the microbiology of DFU among Jordanian patients. The results will help in the appropriate application of antimicrobial chemotherapy in the management of DFU.