Chronic endogenous fungal endophthalmitis: diagnostic and treatment challenges: A case report

Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Apr 9;100(14):e25459. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025459.


RATIONALE: Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) is a sight-threatening complication of systemic fungemia. As the prevalence rises, treatment remains a challenge especially when there is a failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus. This case report studies a case of chronic EFE, focusing on the diagnostic procedures, treatment options, monitoring parameters and the treatment outcome.

PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with underlying well controlled diabetes mellitus was treated with 2 weeks' course of intravenous antifungal fluconazole for pyelonephritis as his blood culture grew Candida albicans. Concurrently, he complained of 3 months of bilateral painless progressive blurring of vision. At presentation, his visual acuity (VA) was light perception both eyes. Ocular examination revealed non granulomatous inflammation with dense vitritis of both eyes.

DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with EFE but the condition responded poorly with the medications.

INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravitreal (IVT) amphotericin B and fluconazole was continued. Vitrectomy was performed and intraoperative findings included bilateral fungal balls in the vitreous and retina with foveal traction in the left eye. Postoperatively, vision acuity was 6/24, N8 right eye and 2/60, N unable for left eye with extensive left macular scar and hole. Vitreous cultures were negative. He received multiple IVT amphotericin B and was started on topical steroid eye drops for persistent panuveitis with systemic fluconazole. Ocular improvement was seen after switching to IVT and topical voriconazole. Despite this, his ocular condition deteriorated and he developed neovascular glaucoma requiring 3 topical antiglaucoma agents. Panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed.

OUTCOMES: At 3 months' follow-up, his vision acuity remained at 6/24 for right eye and 2/60 for the left eye. There was no recurrence of inflammation or infection in both eyes.

LESSONS: Voriconazole could serve as a promising broad spectrum tri-azole agent in cases of failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus.

PMID:33832156 | PMC:PMC8036100 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000025459