[Clinical analysis of 14 cases with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated with tropical candidemia].

[Clinical analysis of 14 cases with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated with tropical candidemia].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2020 Oct 02;58(10):813-817

Authors: Yan L, Zheng MC, Ju XL, Hu SY, Jin RM, Guo BY, Yang MH

Abstract
Objective: To investigate the clinical feature, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) complicated with candida tropicalis bloodstream infection (CTBI), so as to improve the understanding of this disease. Methods: The general information, clinical manifestation, auxiliary examination, treatment and outcome of 14 childhood ALL who were diagnosed with tropical candidemia between January 2015 and December 2018 in 6 hospitals were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data of non invasive fungal disease (IFD) ALL (28 cases) and other IFD children (9 cases) admitted in the same period were collected as control group. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factor of CTBI. Results: Among 14 cases, there were 7 males and 7 females, with the age ranged from 17 months to 13 years. All the cases had fever, 9 cases had digestive system symptoms and stool fungal culture were positive in 3 of them; 7 cases had respiratory system symptoms and sputum fungal culture was positive in 1 of them; 2 cases had central nervous system symptoms and 10 cases progressed into septic shock. All 14 cases had neutropenia and the neutropenia duration was 1 to 53 days. Among 14 cases, the C-reactive protein was>50 mg/L in 8 cases, in which the proportion was significantly higher than that in other invasive fungal disease(IFD) (8/14 vs. 1/9, P<0.05), meanwhile the 1, 3-β-D-glucan detection, galactomannan detection and pulmonary imaging were not remarkable in all 14 cases. The blood culture results of 14 cases were all candida tropicalis, among which 13 cases finished drug susceptibility tests, the isolates of all cases were sensitive to flucytosine and amphotericin B, and the isolates of 4 cases were sensitive to fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole. Among 14 cases, 1 case lost to follow-up after giving up treatment, 1 case died before antifungal therapy and the remaining 12 cases received antifungal therapy; 7 of the 14 cases died. Univariate analysis showed that between ALL with CTBI group (14 cases) and ALL without invasive fungal disease (IFD) group (28 cases), the differences in variables such as ALL not in remission (χ²=37.847, P<0.01), length of hospital stay>15 days (χ2=8.351, P=0.004), neutropenia (χ²=14.280, P<0.01), neutropenia duration>10 days (χ²=10.254, P=0.001), use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (χ²=13.888, P<0.01), skin and mucous membrane damage (χ²= 5.923, P=0.015) were statistically significant. Conclusions: In childhood ALL complicated with tropical candidemia, the drug resistance rate and mortality rate were high. For azole-resistant tropical candida, amphotericin B liposome or echinocandins(caspofungin) -fluorocytosine combined therapy was recommended to reduce treatment-related deaths.

PMID: 32987460 [PubMed - in process]