[Clinical analysis of children with group B streptococcal meningitis in 2013-2017 in a single center].

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[Clinical analysis of children with group B streptococcal meningitis in 2013-2017 in a single center].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2019 Jun 02;57(6):452-457

Authors: Zhang XX, Geng ZX, Zhu L, Li MH, Wang YJ, Qian SY, Liu G

Abstract
Objective: To explore the clinical features, the risk factors of mortality and drug resistance of the isolates in patients with group B streptococcus (GBS) meningitis. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in 96 children with GBS meningitis (46 males and 50 females) at Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2013 to October 2017. The clinical characteristics, prognosis and drug resistance were reviewed and analyzed. According to the onset time, the patients were divided into early onset disease (EOD, 0-6 days), late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, 90 days-16 years), the clinical features were compared. According to the results of cranial imaging examination, the patients were divided into two groups: those with neurological complications and those without neurological complications. The influencing factors of neurological complications were analyzed. According to the outcome of 28 days after discharge, patients were divided into death group and survival group. The risk factors of mortality were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Non-numeric variables were analyzed with χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Numeric variable between groups were compared with nonparametric test. Results: A total of 96 patients were enrolled, including 18 (19%) EOD, 71 (74%) LOD and 7 (7%) VLOD cases. The median age of EOD cases was 2 days, with a range from 0 to 6 days. The median age of LOD cases was 31 days, with a range from 7 to 81 days. The median age of VLOD cases was 153 days, with a range from 95 to 214 days. Before the onset of the disease, the mother had mastitis in 6 cases and premature rupture of membranes in 6 cases. The common clinical manifestations of patients were fever (95%, 91/96), anorexia (65%, 62/96), seizure (56%, 54/96), and consciousness changes (36%, 35/96). The differences were statistically significant in gender (13/18 vs. 28/71 vs. 5/7, χ(2)=7.705, P=0.024), the number of cases who was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (5/18 vs. 31/71 vs. 0, χ(2)=6.065, P=0.042) and peripheral blood leukocyte (12(4, 18)×10(9)/L vs. 6(3, 11)×10(9)/L vs. 13(6, 17)×10(9)/L, H=9.885, P=0.007) in EOD group, LOD group and VLOD group. Cranial imaging was performed in 94 patients, 60 patients (64%) developed neurological complications, including subdural effusion (31/94, 33%), followed by intracranial hemorrhage (26/94, 28%), cerebral softening (19/94, 20%), cerebral atrophy (15/94, 16%), ependinitis (8/94, 9%) and hydrocephalus (4/94, 4%). By univariate χ(2) test analysis, seizure (63% (38/60) vs.41% (14/34), χ(2)=4.310, P=0.038) was a risk factor of neurological complications. Within 28 days after discharge, 88 patients survived and 8 patients died, with a fatality rate of 8%. The independent risk factors for the death were septic shock (OR: 9.548, 95% CI 1.439-63.356, P=0.019) and respiratory failure (OR: 7.053, 95% CI 1.160-42.888, P=0.034). All of isolates were susceptible to penicillin (68/68), ceftriaxone (47/47), cefepime (50/50), vancomycin (60/60) and linezolid (54/54), while the rates of resistance to tetracycline, levofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin were 5/12, 17/45, 38/46 and 32/37, respectively. Conclusions: The main type of GBS meningitis is late onset cases. The incidence of neurological complications was high. The independent risk factors for death were septic shock and respiratory failure. The strains were severely resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin.

PMID: 31216803 [PubMed - in process]