Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 24. doi: 10.1007/s10096-021-04257-8. Online ahead of print.
The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical and microbiological characteristics of Corynebacterium bacteremia in hematological patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with Corynebacterium bacteremia from April 2013 to June 2018. The causative Corynebacterium species were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Drug susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In total, 147 cases of Corynebacterium bacteremia were identified during the study period. Corynebacterium striatum was the most frequent pathogen. Catheter-related bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 19.7% of all patients, and moderate/severe oral or severe gastrointestinal mucosal impairment was detected in 19.7%. Polymicrobial infection was found in about 20% of cases, with Enterococcus faecium being the most frequent isolate. The overall 30-day mortality was 34.7% (51/147). Multivariate analysis showed that E. faecium co-infection (odds ratio (OR) 9.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-40), systemic corticosteroids (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.4-8.9), other immunosuppressive drugs (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.13-0.76), and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥4 (OR 12; 95% CI 3.9-40) were significant risk factors for overall 30-day mortality. The drug susceptibility rates for beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were quite low. All isolates were susceptible to glycopeptides and linezolid. However, some C. striatum isolates were resistant to daptomycin. Corynebacterium bacteremia can occur in the presence of several types of mucosal impairment. Our drug susceptibility data indicate that Corynebacterium bacteremia in hematological patients could be treated by glycopeptides or linezolid.