Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with MDR tuberculosis in Dar Es Salaam region, Tanzania

JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Dec 8;2(4):dlaa108. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlaa108. eCollection 2020 Dec.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Tanzania more than 28% of all multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases occur in Dar es Salaam. However, information about management and clinical outcomes of patients with MDR-TB in the region is scarce, and hence the need for this study.

METHODS: A 5-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in six centres in Dar es Salaam. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize social demographics and clinical characteristics. Associations between occurrence of adverse events, regimen change and cure were determined using the Chi-square test whereas factors associated with mortality were determined using the Log-ranking test and Cox regression model.

RESULTS: Three-hundred patient files were found and reviewed. The majority were male 199 (66.3%), aged 25-44 years [176 (58.7%)] and 89 (30.1%) were HIV co-infected. 186 (62%) completed their treatment, 68 (22.0%) were on treatment and 9 (3.3%) were lost to follow-up. The majority, 152 (51.0%) were managed using long MDR-TB regimens. The overall mortality rate was 5.7 per 1000 MDR-TB patients. A higher mortality rate was associated with being ≥45 years [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 10.82, 95% CI: 1.14-102.74, P = 0.038), female (AHR: 5.92, 95% CI: 1.75-20.08, P = 0.004), on a short anti-TB regimen (AHR: 4.34, 95% CI: 1.41-13.35, P = 0.010), HIV co-infected [crude hazard ratio (CHR): 2.56, 95% CI: 1.01-6.50, P = 0.048), on concomitant long-term medication use (CHR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.17-7.64, P = 0.022) and having other co-morbidities (CHR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.32-9.02, P = 0.011).

CONCLUSIONS: MDR-TB mortality was associated with short anti-TB regimens, sex, age, concomitant long-term medication use and HIV coinfection. In this population, use of long and individualized regimens is recommended.

PMID:34223058 | PMC:PMC8210025 | DOI:10.1093/jacamr/dlaa108