Clinical Profile and Microbiological Spectrum of Febrile Neutropenic Episodes in Children With Severe Aplastic Anemia.

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Clinical Profile and Microbiological Spectrum of Febrile Neutropenic Episodes in Children With Severe Aplastic Anemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2019 Oct 29;:

Authors: Samanta A, Chandra J, Kaur R, Anand R, Shukla S, Mandal P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common life-threatening complication in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). However, few studies have examined the spectrum of infections in FN in patients with SAA, especially in children. Therefore, the current study was planned to study the clinicomicrobiological profile of FN episodes in these children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 38 episodes of FN that occurred in 31 children with SAA from November 2015 to April 2017 were collected prospectively and analyzed.
RESULTS: FN episodes occurred more frequently (54.8%) in patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Clinically documented infections accounted for 21 (55.26%) episodes, microbiologically documented infections for 15 (39.47%), bacteremia for 13 (34.21%), and invasive fungal diseases for 6 (15.78%) episodes. Among clinically documented infections, the lower respiratory tract was the commonest site in 23.68% episodes, followed by skin and soft tissue infections. No focus of infection could be identified in 12 (31.57%) episodes. Gram-negative bacteria (71.42%) were the predominant isolates (commonest Klebsiella pneumoniae) over gram-positive bacteria (commonest coagulase-negative Staphylococcus). High prevalence of aminoglycoside, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenem resistance was noted among gram-negative organisms. Gram-positive organisms showed excellent sensitivity to vancomycin, linezolid, and clindamycin. The overall mortality rate was 42%.
CONCLUSIONS: Empirical antimicrobial therapy should include adequate coverage for gram-negative pathogens. The antimicrobial regimen should be modified according to the results of the culture and sensitivity testing.

PMID: 31688626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]