J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2021 Feb 18:S1684-1182(21)00047-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2021.02.004. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: (1,3)-β-D-glucan (BD) assays were developed as a method to rapidly diagnose invasive candidiasis (IC). The incidence of fungal infections and the demands for BD assay are gradually increasing in patients with severe trauma and under intensive care. However, the ideal BD cut-off value to predict IC has not been clarified. In this study, we evaluate the predictability of the BD assay and investigate the optimal cut-off value in patients with severe burn injuries.
METHODS: From July to December 2018, 134 samples from 86 patients with severe burns were analyzed. Serum BD levels were measured utilizing a Fungitell (Cape Cod Inc.) assay. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was generated, and the cumulative progression of IC was studied using a Cox proportional hazards model. Partial dependence plots (PDP) was applied to predict the risk of IC.
RESULTS: Eleven patients were diagnosed with IC. BD over 120 pg/mL (HR = 5.11; P = 0.001) was found to be independent predictor of the occurrence of IC, when the multivariable Cox model was adjusted for age, total body surface area, and inhalation injury. The area under the ROC curve was 0.658 (95% CI, 0.513-0.803), at an optimal cut-off value of 124.7 pg/mL. PDP analysis showed the higher predicted IC occurrence at a BD level of ∼120-150 pg/mL and TBSA over 60%.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that BD is an independent predictor for IC, and that a BD level between 120 and 150 pg/mL could be utilized for IC prediction.