Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and antifungals.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014 Feb 12;
Authors: Vadlapatla RK, Patel M, Paturi DK, Pal D, Mitra AK
Introduction: Complete delineation of the HIV-1 life cycle has resulted in the development of several antiretroviral drugs. Twenty-five therapeutic agents belonging to five different classes are currently available for the treatment of HIV-1 infections. Advent of triple combination antiretroviral therapy has significantly lowered the mortality rate in HIV patients. However, fungal infections still represent major opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Areas covered: Antiretroviral drugs that target enzymes and/or proteins indispensable for viral replication are discussed in this article. Fungal infections, causative organisms, epidemiology and preferred treatment modalities are also outlined. Finally, observed/predicted drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and antifungals are summarized along with clinical recommendations. Expert opinion: Concomitant use of amphotericin B and tenofovir must be closely monitored for renal functioning. Due to relatively weak interactive potential with the CYP450 system, fluconazole is the preferred antifungal drug. High itraconazole doses (> 200 mg/day) are not advised in patients receiving booster protease inhibitor (PI) regimen. Posaconazole is contraindicated in combination with either efavirenz or fosamprenavir. Moreover, voriconazole is contraindicated with high-dose ritonavir-boosted PI. Echinocandins may aid in overcoming the limitations of existing antifungal therapy. An increasing number of documented or predicted drug-drug interactions and therapeutic drug monitoring may aid in the management of HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections.
PMID: 24521092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]