Microb Drug Resist. 2021 Oct 6. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2021.0051. Online ahead of print.
The spread of multidrug-resistant and virulent Staphylococcus aureus among children is a public health concern, but the actual conditions in Myanmar have not been characterized. In this study, a total of 244 clinical isolates of S. aureus collected from pediatric patients in Yangon Children's Hospital during a 1-year period were analyzed for their drug resistance and genetic features. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 19.7% of isolates associated with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type III, IV, or V. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 61.5% of all isolates, with a significantly higher prevalence in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; 67.9%) than in MRSA (35.4%) isolates. Sequence type (ST) 239/SCCmec-III was the most common MRSA clone lacking PVL genes, while PVL-positive MRSA belonged to mostly ST361/SCCmec-V and ST772/SCCmec-V. Among MSSA isolates, ST121, ST2990, ST88, and ST1930 were dominant, harboring mostly PVL genes. ST239 MRSA isolates exhibited the highest resistance rates to antimicrobials, and quinolone resistance was found in the dominant MRSA clones (ST239, ST361, and ST772) and some MSSA lineages. The present study revealed the prevalence and clonal diversity of MRSA/MSSA in children in Myanmar in relation to drug resistance and virulence determinants.