[Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI) in the Course of Time – An Issue Only for the Internist?]

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[Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI) in the Course of Time - An Issue Only for the Internist?]

Zentralbl Chir. 2013 Oct 16;

Authors: Weis S, John E, Lippmann N, Mössner J, Lübbert C

Background: Toxigenic strains of Clostridium (C.) difficile are the most prevalent pathogens of antibiotic associated intestinal disease and nosocomial diarrhoea. During the last 10 years, incidences of C. difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide. Materials and Methods: With clinical and microbiological original data for 2002-2012 from the University Hospitals Leipzig and Halle (Saale), Germany, the authors illustrate the current situation regarding CDI in the states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt and exemplify the latest developments in terms of incidence, prevalence of resistance, diagnosis and treatment strategies regarding CDI with an emphasis on surgical options. Results: Following the general trend, at the University Hospitals of Leipzig and Halle (Saale) there was also an increase in incidence of CDI, especially of severe clinical courses. In primary and secondary care facilities, prevention of CDI is based on hygiene management and restricted usage of antibiotics, preferably as "Antibiotic Stewardship" programmes. In 2012, the new macrocyclic antibiotic Fidaxomicin was approved in the European Union for the treatment of CDI. The therapeutic armamentarium, previously based on metronidazole or vancomycin, has now been enriched by a substance that presumably will reduce the rate of recurrence of CDI. Moreover, early data from case series and controlled trials suggest that the re-establishment of eubiosis in the colon of patients with recurrent CDI by stool transplantation from healthy donors is an alternative to antibiotics. Standard surgical intervention for refractory CDI is subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy. In patients with adequate life expectancy and without organ dysfunction, a colon-saving surgical technique should be considered. Conclusion: Taking antibiotics for most remains the main risk factor for suffering from symptomatic CDI. With the introduction of Fidaxomicin there is hope for an improvement in the conservative treatment of CDI. Stool transplants from healthy donors are now considered to be better than giving antibiotics for severe CDI, but this treatment has not found broad acceptance yet. In cases with a lack of early treatment success, the surgeon must be consulted. Here, the evidence for preferably colon-saving surgical procedures is so far unfortunately low.

PMID: 24132675 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]