J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021 Jul 1:10781552211029046. doi: 10.1177/10781552211029046. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Calcineurin inhibitors are commonly used in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients to prevent graft versus host disease, but as CYP3A4 substrates they are frequently involved in drug-drug interactions. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of isavuconazole, fluconazole, and posaconazole on tacrolimus and cyclosporine serum concentrations and dose adjustments in allogeneic HSCT patients.
METHODS: This retrospective study included patients admitted to Oregon Health and Science University between April 2008 and December 2018 who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and received concomitant tacrolimus or cyclosporine and fluconazole, isavuconazole or posaconazole therapy. Data on patient characteristics, drug dosing, and serum drug concentrations were collected through chart review, and descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results.
RESULTS: A total of 139 patients were included in this study. We found fluconazole initiation leads to a 25% reduction in both tacrolimus and cyclosporine doses in order to maintain goal serum concentrations. Posaconazole and isavuconazole initiation requires tacrolimus dose reductions by 53% and 21%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience, FLC, POS, and ISA initiation may require CNI dose reductions and close monitoring of CNI levels to ensure levels remain within goal serum concentrations. Larger studies are needed to fully quantify the percentage in CNI dose reductions and characterize differences among these antifungals.