Comparison of antibiotic prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole/colistin (COT/COL) versus ciprofloxacin (CIP) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Related Articles

Comparison of antibiotic prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole/colistin (COT/COL) versus ciprofloxacin (CIP) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Support Care Cancer. 2015 May;23(5):1321-9

Authors: Mayer K, Hahn-Ast C, Mückter S, Schmitz A, Krause S, Felder L, Bekeredjian-Ding I, Molitor E, Brossart P, von Lilienfeld-Toal M

Abstract
PURPOSE: Recent meta-analyses showed that antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy reduced the incidence of fever and mortality rate. Fluoroquinolones appear to be most effective and well tolerated. Thus, in April 2008, we changed our antibiotic prophylaxis regimen from cotrimoxazole/colistin (COT/COL) to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (CIP) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of this retrospective study was to compare efficacy and development of bacterial resistance with two different prophylaxis regimens over a time period of more than 4 years.
METHODS: Induction chemotherapy courses given for AML during the antibiotic prophylaxis period with COT/COL (01/2006-04/2008) and CIP (04/2008-06/2010) were retrospectively analyzed with a standard questionnaire.
RESULTS: Eighty-five courses in the COT/COL group and 105 in the CIP group were analyzed. The incidence of fever was not significantly different (COT/COL 80 % vs CIP 77 %; p = 0.724). Also, the rate of microbiologically documented infections was nearly the same (29 vs 26 %; p = 0.625). In addition, there was no significant difference in the incidence of clinically documented infections (11 vs 19 %; p = 0.155) or in the rates of detected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Of note, there was no increase in resistance rates or cases with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in the CIP group.
CONCLUSION: The antibiotic prophylaxis with CIP compared to COT/COL in AML was similarly effective with no increase in bacterial resistance. COT/COL may have the advantages of providing additional prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and leaving fluoroquinolones as an additional option for treatment of febrile neutropenia.

PMID: 25617073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]