J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Sep 1;32(6):2159-2162. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007532.
INTRODUCTION: Within the treatment protocols of patients with cleft lip and palate, the nasoalveolar molding (NAM) acquire more followers every day.Their benefits have been well documented, but not equally their complications. The purpose of this study was to describe the complications produced during treatment with Grayson presurgical NAM in nonsyndromic infants with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.
METHODS: Bibliographic review on 8 databases using search algorithms. By applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria, 21 articles were detected, which were analyzed in full text. Complication, cause, and solution data were presented in supplemental tables.
RESULTS: Complications are related to soft tissues, hard tissues, and those derived from care.
SOFT TISSUES: irritation, ulceration, gingival, facial, or nasal bleeding. Candidiasis. An overexpanded nostril creation to improper placement or modifications of the nasal stent at home.The most frequent were lip and cheeks skin irritation by taping, and gingival ulceration due to excessive pressure.
HARD TISSUES: misalignment of alveolar segments and the premature eruption of teeth.
DERIVED FROM CARE: inadequate device retention, adherence problems to treatment, poor/excessive care of the caregiver, intolerance to the device, eating problems, breathing, and socioeconomic issues.
CONCLUSIONS: The main complications occur in soft tissues, related to the retention mechanisms and an inadequate adjustment of the device.The benefits of NAM exceed the complications. It is necessary to know them to avoid any harmful results since they could prolong or stop the treatment, compromising the result. The active collaboration of the family in the insertion and maintenance of the device is crucial for success.