Life Sci. 2021 Mar 3:119301. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119301. Online ahead of print.
Tuberculosis is one of the deadliest infectious diseases existing in the world since ancient times and still possesses serious threat across the globe. Each year the number of cases increases due to high drug resistance shown by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Available antimycobacterial drugs have been classified as First line, Second line and Third line antibiotics depending on the time of their discoveries and their effectiveness in the treatment. These antibiotics have a broad range of targets ranging from cell wall to metabolic processes and their non-judicious and uncontrolled usage in the treatment for years has created a significant problem called multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. In this review, we have summarized the mechanism of action of all the classified antibiotics currently in use along with the resistance mechanisms acquired by Mtb. We have focused on the new drug candidates/repurposed drugs, and drug in combinations, which are in clinical trials for either treating the MDR tuberculosis more effectively or involved in reducing the time required for the chemotherapy of drug sensitive TB. This information is not discussed very adequately on a single platform. Additionally, we have discussed the recent technologies that are being used to discover novel resistance mechanisms acquired by Mtb and for exploring novel drugs. The story of intrinsic resistance mechanisms and evolution in Mtb is far from complete. Therefore, we have also discussed intrinsic resistance mechanisms of Mtb and their evolution with time, emphasizing the hope for the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs for effective therapy of tuberculosis.