Contemporary Microbiology and Antimicrobial Treatment of Complicated Appendicitis: The Value of a Short-term Study.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Jul 27;:
Authors: Viel-Thériault I, Bettolli M, Toye B, Harrison MA, Le Saux N
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship interventions to curtail the use of third-generation cephalosporins and antipseudomonal penicillins for the treatment of complicated appendicitis in children are challenging given the tendency to treat complicated disease with broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Reasons for this are unclear, but there is a paucity of contemporary microbiologic data associated with the child presenting with either acute perforated or gangrenous appendicitis. This study aimed to justify the appropriateness of an empiric regimen consisting of ampicillin, tobramycin/gentamicin plus metronidazole and to analyze duration of postoperative therapy.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from February 1, 2017, to October 31, 2018, in children who underwent appendectomy or interventional radiologic drainage for primary complicated appendicitis. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had a pathogen isolated from peritoneal fluid culture that was not susceptible to the recommended empiric therapy. The secondary outcomes were the total duration of antimicrobial therapy and the proportion of patients with a postoperative infectious complication within 30 days after intervention.
RESULTS: Of 425 children with primary acute appendicitis, 158 (37%) had complicated appendicitis at presentation. Culture was performed in 53 (40%) of the 133 who underwent a surgical or interventional radiologic intervention. The group with peritoneal cultures was more likely to present with longer symptom duration before admission [3 (interquartile range, 2-5) vs 2 (interquartile range, 1-2) days; P < 0.001] and with purulent peritonitis [47% (25/53) vs 13% (10/80); P < 0.001]. The most common pathogens isolated were anaerobes (81%), Escherichia coli (74%) and Streptococcus anginosus group (62%). Only 4% of isolated bacteria were resistant to empiric therapy. Postoperative infectious complications were documented in 23 (17%) patients and were not associated with the presence of a resistant pathogen or the choice of antimicrobial agents but with more severe disease and higher C-reactive protein values (303 vs 83 mg/L; P=0.03) at presentation.
CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of previously healthy children presenting with complicated appendicitis requiring surgical drainage, the most common bacteria from peritoneal cultures continue to be S. anginosus, aminoglycoside-susceptible Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobes. In an attempt to reduce extended-spectrum cephalosporin use, these data were useful in supporting the use of metronidazole with ampicillin and an aminoglycoside, rather than third-generation cephalosporins.
PMID: 31365479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]