Front Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 1;12:635345. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.635345. eCollection 2021.
The response to medications in children differs not only in comparison to adults but also between children of the different age groups and according to the disease. This is true for anti-infectives that are widely prescribed in children with malignancy. In the absence of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic paediatric studies, dosage is frequently based on protocols adapted to adults. After a short presentation of the drugs, we reviewed the population pharmacokinetic studies available for glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin, n = 5) and antifungals (voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B, n = 9) currently administered in children with onco-hematological malignancies. For each of them, we reported the main study characteristics including identified covariates affecting pharmacokinetics and proposed paediatric dosage recommendations. This review highlighted the very limited amount of data available, the lack of consensus regarding PK/PD targets used for dosing optimization and regarding dosage recommendations when available. Additional PK studies are urgently needed in this specific patient population. In addition to pharmacokinetics, efficacy may be altered in immunocompromised patients and prospective clinical evaluation of new dosage regimen should be provided as they are missing in most cases.