Cost-effectiveness of improvements in diagnosis and treatment accessibility for tuberculosis control in India.

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Cost-effectiveness of improvements in diagnosis and treatment accessibility for tuberculosis control in India.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 Sep;19(9):1115-24

Authors: Suen SC, Bendavid E, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD

Abstract
SETTING: Inaccurate diagnosis and inaccessibility of care undercut the effectiveness of high-quality anti-tuberculosis treatment and select for resistance. Rapid diagnostic systems, such as Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing (DST), and programs that provide high-quality DOTS anti-tuberculosis treatment to patients in the unregulated private sector (public-private mix [PPM]), may help address these challenges, albeit at increased cost.
OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: We extended a microsimulation model of TB in India calibrated to demographic, epidemiologic, and care trends to evaluate 1) replacing DST with Xpert; 2) replacing microscopy and culture with Xpert to diagnose multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and non-MDR-TB; 3) implementing nationwide PPM; and combinations of (3) with (1) or (2).
RESULTS: PPM (assuming costs of $38/person) and Xpert improved health and increase costs relative to the status quo. PPM alone or with Xpert cost <1 gross domestic product/capita per quality-adjusted life-year gained relative to the next best intervention, and dominated Xpert interventions excluding PPM.
CONCLUSIONS: While both PPM and Xpert are promising tools for combatting TB in India, PPM should be prioritized over Xpert, as private sector engagement is more cost-effective than Xpert alone and, if sufficient resources are available, would substantially increase the value of Xpert if both interventions are implemented together.

PMID: 26260835 [PubMed - in process]