Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Jun 16;10(6):725. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10060725.
Biofilms not only protect bacteria and Candida species from antibiotics, but they also promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains, making eradication more challenging. As a result, novel antimicrobial agents to counteract biofilm formation are desperately needed. In this study, Terminalia catappa leaf extract (TCE) was used to optimize the TCE-capped silver nanoparticles (TCE-AgNPs) via a one-pot single-step method. Varied concentrations of TCE have yielded different sized AgNPs. The physico-chemical characterization of TCE-AgNPs using UV-Vis, SEM, TEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy have confirmed the formation of nanostructures, their shape and size and plausible role of TCE bio-active compounds, most likely involved in the synthesis as well as stabilization of NPs, respectively. TCE-AgNPs have been tested for antibiofilm and antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Candida albicans using various microbiological protocols. TCE-Ag-NPs-3 significantly inhibits biofilm formation of MDR-PA, MRSA, and C. albicans by 73.7, 69.56, and 63.63%, respectively, at a concentration of 7.8 µg/mL, as determined by crystal violet microtiter assay. Furthermore, SEM micrograph shows that TCE-AgNPs significantly inhibit the colonization and adherence of biofilm forming cells; individual cells with loss of cell wall and membrane integrity were also observed, suggesting that the biofilm architecture and EPS matrix were severely damaged. Moreover, TEM and SEM images showed that TCE-AgNPs brutally damaged the cell wall and membranes of MDR-PA, MRSA, and C. albicans. Additionally, extreme ultrastructural changes such as deformation, disintegration, and separation of cell wall and membrane from the cells, have also been observed, indicating significant loss of membrane and cell wall integrity, which eventually led to cell death. Overall, the research revealed a simple, environmentally friendly, and low-cost method for producing colloidal TCE-AgNPs with promising applications in advanced clinical settings against broad-spectrum biofilm-forming antibiotic-resistant bacteria and candida strains.