Mrozek S, et al. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2020 - Review.
Extracerebral complications, especially pulmonary and cardiovascular, are frequent in brain-injured patients and are major determinants of the outcome. Two major pathways have been described: brain-lung and brain-heart interactions. Lung injuries after acute brain damages include ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and neurogenic pulmonary œdema (NPE), whereas heart injuries can range from cardiac enzymes release, ECG abnormalities to left ventricle dysfunction or cardiogenic shock. The pathophysiologies of these brain-lung and brain-heart crosstalk are complex and sometimes interconnected. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and pathophysiology of lung and heart injuries in brain-injured patients with the different pathways implicated and the clinical implications for critical care physicians.