Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 3:S1201-9712(21)00293-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.075. Online ahead of print.
Rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant (RR/MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis (TB) are serious public health problem in Kazakhstan. In 2012 and 2013, stringent regulatory authorities approved the first new TB drugs in fifty years, bedaquiline and delamanid, offering hope for more effective and less toxic MDR-TB treatment. The endTB Observational Study is a multi-country study that enrolled patients receiving a bedaquiline- or delamanid-containing regimen for RR/MDR-TB between 01 April 2015 and 30 September 2018. In Kazakhstan, 675 patients participated in the study; all had at least 6-months or longer of follow-up after the start of treatment. The present analysis focuses on endTB Observational Study patients living in Kazakhstan who had a positive baseline sputum culture (220 patients) and initiated a bedaquiline- or delamanid-containing regimen between February 1, 2016 and March 31, 2018. Of them, 195 (89%) of patients experienced culture conversion within six months.