Current and prospective treatments for multidrug-resistant gram-positive infections.

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Current and prospective treatments for multidrug-resistant gram-positive infections.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Oct;14(14):1919-32

Authors: Rybak JM, Barber KE, Rybak MJ

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. are two of the most common organisms causing nosocomial infections today; and are consistently associated with high mortality rates (approximately 20 and 44%, respectively). Resistance among these pathogens to first line agents such as methicillin and vancomycin continues to rise while isolates with reduced susceptibility to newer agents including linezolid and daptomycin continue to emerge, representing a serious concern for clinicians.
AREAS COVERED: Mechanisms of action and resistance as well as in vitro and clinical experience in the treatment of resistant staphylococci and enterococci with currently available agents are discussed. Additionally, novel combination regimens showing enhanced efficacy and available data pertaining to prospective therapies including solithromycin, tedizolid, dalbavancin and oritavancin will be covered.
EXPERT OPINION: With an increase in organisms displaying reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and the associated treatment failures, the significance of alternative therapies such as daptomycin, linezolid, ceftaroline, and prospective anti-gram-positive agents is on the rise. As our understanding of antimicrobial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics principles continues to evolve, the selection of highly effective agents and optimization of dosages may lead to improved patient outcomes and delay the development of resistance.

PMID: 23876168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]